Today's lecture was conducted by Dr. Siti and we learned about Instructional Design. So, what is Instructional Design? Instructional design is the creation of learning experiences and materials in a manner that results in the acquisition and application of knowledge and skills. Instructional designs are important for every instructional designer as it helps in the process of assessing needs, designing a process, developing materials and evaluating their effectiveness. An Instructional Designer needs to through a process of well-thought stages before proceeding with their content development.
To make it less complicated, this ID Models can be linked with the guideline from TPCK/TPACK. As what we have learned about TPCK during the lecture; T stands for Technological, P stands for Pedagogical, C stands for Content and lastly K stands for Knowledge. TPCK was introduced later introduced by Koehler and Mishra (2005) as an added technological T to Shulman’s pedagogical content knowledge; PCK.
TPCK was introduced as a way of representing what teachers need to know about technology, and argue for the role of authentic design-based activities in the development of this knowledge. As we know, integrating technology into teaching does not come in handy.
One way in making sure the success of integrating technology into teaching is to focus on the possible problems that could arise. This will then help us as educators to think of the right combinations of technologies, teaching approach and instructional goals before proceeding with planning a TPACK framework for our students.
TPACK is like a guideline for educators in creating a meaningful lesson for our students. It helps us as educators to know the prior knowledge regarding the technological, pedagogical, content and knowledge that our students have. This aid in building on existing understanding to develop new learning theories or strengthen the old ones.
So to conclude, this week's lecture was crucial to me as it helps in building my knowledge that I needed to know as a preparation for me to become an educator in the future. Through TPCK, my future students could enhance their knowledge and leave a room for improvisation for me as a future educator.
As a future educator, knowing and mastering every learning theory there is like at the back of our hand is very crucial as this will help us in building a characterized educator with vast knowledge. It is not an alienated thinking for educators that our students come from different backgrounds and that have somehow caused the students’ level of proficiency and their way of learning. We need to assess our students’ needs and evaluate their way of learning in order to make sure that every student goes through a meaningful learning process.
In education, there are four different learning theories which are behaviourism, constructivism, cognitivism and connectivism. First and foremost is Behaviourism. Behaviourism assumes that a learner is essentially passive and they respond to environmental stimuli. This theory believes that a learner starts out with a clean slate, and behaviour is shaped by positive and negative reinforcement. Reinforcement, positive or negative, increases the possibility of an event to happen again whereas punishment, both positive and negative, decreases the possibility of an event from happening again. An instance of behaviourism; is when a teacher rewards their class or certain students with a party or special treat at the end of the week for having a good behavior throughout the week. The same concept applies with punishment. The teacher is obliged to take away certain privileges if the students misbehave.
Next is constructivism. Constructivism means that knowledge is not given, but it is constructed. Constructivists view learning as the result of mental construction. In constructivism learning theory, learning takes place when new information is built into and added onto an individual’s current structure of knowledge, understanding and skills. As quoted by Alan Prichard; “we learn best when we actively construct our own understanding.” Constructivism is student-centered as learners are known to be active learners.
Cognitivism is a learning theory that focuses on the processes involved in learning rather than on the observed behavior. As opposed to Behaviorists, Cognitivists do not require an outward exhibition of learning, but focus more on the internal processes and connections that take place during learning. Cognitivists objected to behaviorists because they felt that behaviorists thought learning was simply a reaction to a stimulus and ignored the idea that thinking plays an important role. One of the most famous criticisms addressed to Behaviorism was Chomsky’s argument that language could not be acquired purely through conditioning, and must be at least partly explained by the existence of some inner abilities. According to cognitivists, learners are active participants in the learning process.
Connectivism is a learning theory that was developed by George Siemens. It is a learning theory of the digital age. It is developed and based upon the idea that learning occurs through a connected world.
Nothing much happened in today's class. We learned something that is very foreign to us though, it was a bout cipher. CIPHER? Never heard of her before. Out of randomness, we were told to answer a quiz and so we did. Mind you when I had zero knowledge on what was happening. I had to google to answer most of the questions.
To provide a little backstory - Cipher is a method of transforming a message to conceal its meaning. The term is also used synonymous with cipher-text or cryptogram in reference to the encrypted form of the message.
Only recently we found out that, the guy who was instructing us to answer the quiz did not have the permit to enter the lecture hall but he did anyway. I personally did not have a problem with it because now I have new knowledge about coding, something that I probably wouldn't have learned intentionally. But hey, rules are still rules. And I think that's about that.